Wudalianchi Volcano | John Seach


North East China

48.72 N, 126.12 E
summit elevation 597 m
volcanic field

Wudalianchi volcanic field is located in an E-W tectonic belt at the junction between Xiaohinggan Mountains and Song-Nen depression. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Location. Wudalianchi volcano is one of the few areas in China where there are historical records of eruption.

There are 14 cones at the volcano, which are distributed along NE direction as two volcanic chains. Wudalianchi volcano contains cold mineral springs water which is one of the three best examples in the world.

There are five mineral spring water belts found in Wudalianchi:
1) bicarbonate water of Yao quan.
2) ferrosiliceous bicarbonate water of E. Jiaodebu.
3) carbonic acid water of Weishan.
4) carbonic acid water of Huoshao.
5) metasilicic acid-radon water of Baolong Spring.

Main pyroclastic cones at Wudalianchi include - Gelaqiushan, Wohushan, Jiaodebushan, Bijiashan, Yaoquanshan, Longmenshan, Xiaogushan, Laoheishan, and Huoshaoshan.

Volcanic Hazards at Wudalianchi volcano
Wudalianchi city is located 2–3 km south of the volcano. Parts of the city have been built on recent lava. Phreatomagmatic eruptions may occur if magma comes into contact with lakes and rivers in the area. Previous lava flows have extended for 5 km which would put it in range of the city. Lava flows previously have had no preferred orientation.

1776 Eruption
The eruption of Wudalianchi volcano in 1776 occurred at the Laoheishan cone. Lava erupted from the north and northwest covering the 1720 lavas. Tephra fallout occurred southeast of the cone and people evacuated to the west of the volcano.

1719-21 Eruption
Eruptions of Wudalianchi volcano between 1719 and 1721 produced two monogenetic strombolian cones Laoheishan and Huoshaoshan and the 65 km ~ Shilong lava field. There are two main vents at Wudalianchi volcano.
Laoheishan is a cone vent with a height of 166 m and summit crater 350 m wide and 50 m deep. Huoshhaoshan is a small cone which rises 73 m above the surrounding terrain. The crater is 414 m wide and 63 m deep.

Further reading
Li, Z., Ni, S., Zhang, B., Bao, F., Zhang, S., Deng, Y. and Yuen, D.A., 2016. Shallow magma chamber under the Wudalianchi Volcanic Field unveiled by seismic imaging with dense array. Geophysical Research Letters43(10), pp.4954-4961.

Wei, H., Sparks, R.S.J., Liu, R., Fan, Q., Wang, Y., Hong, H., Zhang, H., Chen, H., Jiang, C., Dong, J. and Zheng, Y., 2003. Three active volcanoes in China and their hazards. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences21(5), pp.515-526.

Zhao, Y., Zou, W.D. and Zhou, H., 1999. The analysis of Wudalianchi volcanoes hazard. J Nat Disasters8(4), pp.139-146.

Zongwen, L. and Senlin, Y., 1996. Wudalianchi volcano and volcanic hazard prediction [J]. SEISMOLOGICAL AND GEOMANGNETIC OBSERVATION AND RESEARCH6.

Wudalianchi Volcano Eruptions

1776, 1719-21