Toba Volcano | John Seach


Sumatra, Indonesia

2.58 N, 98.83 E
summit elevation 2157 m

Toba Volcano is located in Northern Sumatra, 80 km south of Medan. Lake Toba is 85 x 30 km in size and is the earth's largest caldera formed in the past 1.8 million years. The eruption of Toba in 72 000 BC was one of the largest in the last few hundred thousand years, with 2800 cubic km of magma being erupted. Particles from the Toba eruption remained in the air for 6 years and world temperatures were reduced by 5 to 10 deg C.

Toba has been given the title supervolcano due to its large magnitude eruption.

There are no recent volcanic or seismic activity in Toba Lake, except a small fumarole field at the southern tip of Samosir Island.

Further reading
Chesner, C.A., 2012. The Toba caldera complex. Quaternary International258, pp.5-18.

Rose, W.I. and Chesner, C.A., 1990. Worldwide dispersal of ash and gases from earth's largest known eruption: Toba, Sumatra, 75 ka. Global and Planetary Change3(3), pp.269-275.

Toba Volcano Eruptions

The most recent eruptions may have occurred at Pusukbukit in the south of the caldera and Tandukbenua on the NW caldera rim.