Tangkubanparahu Volcano | John Seach


(Tangkuban Perahu)
West Java, Indonesia

6.77 S, 107.60 E
summit elevation 2084 m

Tangkubanparahu is a stratovolcano with twin summit craters located in Lembang District, 26 km north of Bandung City.
The active volcano at Tangkubanparahu occupies the central part of the Sunda Caldera. The volcano is composed of alternating layers of lava and pyroclastic rocks and the summit area consists of phreatic deposits.

During the Quaternary period (3 million years to 10,000 years ago) Sunda volcano formed in the west, and in the east Bukit Tunggul, Pulusari and Cangak. The age of this volcanic period was determined by dating the bones of large mammals such as
rhinoceros, hippopotamus, buffalo, antelope and deer preserved under lahar deposits.

Based on past eruptions since the 19th century, Tangkubanparahu has never shown a large magmatic eruption, but small ash emissions without lava flows or glowing rockfalls have occurred. Phreatic eruptions are dominant and generally followed by the increasing of fumaroles and solfatara temperature at several active craters called Kawah Ratu, Kawah Baru and Kawah Domas.

2013 Activity
Eruptions at Tangkubanparahu began on 21 February 2013. The strongest activity occurred on 6th March when ash was ejected 500 m above the crater.

2012 Unrest
Seismic activity increased at Tangkubanparahu volcano on 13th August 2012. Between 1 July and 22 August 264 volcanic earthquakes were recorded. On the 23rd August 2012 the alert level at the volcano was increased from Normal (Level I) to Waspada (Level II).

2005 Volcano Unrest
An increase in seismic activity occurred at the volcano in April 2005.
Report written on Sunday 17th April 2005.
Tangkubanparahu volcano remains at level 3 alert (4 is the highest). The volcano normally has about 1000 tourists per day. Since an increase in seismic activity under the volcano last Wednesday, there has been evacuation of at least 600 vendors selling souvenirs, food and drinks for the tourists. 
Three tectonic earthquakes were felt in the area on Friday. Bandung volcanology office recorded the first tremor, measuring 5 on the Richter scale at 9:06 a.m. with its epicenter located some 33 kilometers south of Bandung city. 
At 10:46 a.m., a second large earthquake, measuring 6 on the Richter scale, again shook the city with its epicenter some 70 kilometers south of Sukabumi city in West Java. The epicenter was 70 kilometers beneath the Indian Ocean. The third earthquake that hit the city measured 5.6 on the Richter scale at 11:17 a.m, with its epicenter in the Sunda Strait where Anak Krakatau continues to shows signs of restlessness. The third earthquake was also felt in Jakarta. 
Of the three earthquakes, the first resulted in the most damage as its epicenter was only five kilometers beneath the Gunung Halu district in Bandung regency, 30 kilometers south of Bandung city. More than 170 houses and school buildings in the area were damaged.
The earthquakes were not only felt in Bandung city, which is preparing for the Asian-African Summit next week, but were also felt in other outlying cities such as Cimahi, Garut, Tasikmalaya and Pangandaran beach in Ciamis regency. 
The earthquakes were tectonic in origin, and were not caused by volcanic activity. However, tectonic activity can disturb volcanoes. The last activity at Tangkuban Parahu was in 2002 when ash plumes rose 2.5 km above the volcano.

Further reading
Srigutomo, Wahyu, et al. "Self Potential Modeling for Investigation of Shallow Structure in Volcanic Region: a Study Case at Domas Crater, Tangkuban Parahu Volcano, West Java." Indonesian Journal of Physics 21.2 (2010): 29-39.

KARTADINATA, Mochamad Nugraha, et al. "Eruptive History of Tangkuban Perahu Volcano, West Java, Indonesia." Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi) 111.3 (2002): 404-409.

Dvorak, John, et al. "Recent uplift and hydrothermal activity at Tangkuban Parahu volcano, west Java, Indonesia." Bulletin of volcanology 53.1 (1990): 20-28.

Tangkubanparahu Volcano Eruptions

2013, 2002, 1985, 1983, 1969, 1967, 1965, 1965, 1961, 1957, 1952, 1929, 1926, 1910,
1896, 1846, 1842, 1829, 1826.