Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcano | John Seach



40.590 S, 72.117 W
summit elevation 2236 m

Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcano is located in central Chile. The group consists of Puyehue volcano and Cordón Caulle fissure complex.

Puyehue volcano contains a 2.4 km wide summit caldera and lava flows and domes on the eastern flank. Historical eruptions have occurred at Cordón Caulle rift zone.

Cordón Caulle geothermal area, occupies a 6 x 13 km wide depression and is the largest active geothermal area in the southern Andes.

Calbuco and Puyehue volcanoes lie on the same fault and are known to erupt
within a few years of each other or together.

2011-12 Eruption
Puyehue volcano in Chile erupted on Saturday 4th June 2011 after 51 years of inactivity. On the 3th June a seismic swarm occurred with 1450 earthquakes registered at the volcano, associated with magma movement under the volcano. The earthquakes has a focus of 2-5 km depth on the southeast flank of the volcano. More than 130 earthquakes were greater than magnitude 2. On Saturday 4th of June the volcano alert was raised to level RED after a marked increase in seismic activity. Over a period of six hours there more than 230 earthquakes per hour with a focus of 1-4 km depth. Twelve of the earthquake were greater than magnitude 4.0, 50 greater than magnitude 3.0. More than half the earthquakes were over magnitude 2.0. The largest earthquake occurred at 8:36 am local time on 4th June with a magnitude 4.4. Residents reported felt earthquakes on Friday evening and Saturday morning. The explosive eruption at Puyehue volcano began on Saturday 4th June producing a 10 km high ash column. More than 600 people were evacuated from the area. Volcanic ash fell in the city of Bariloche in Argentina, and the airport was closed. Residents of Bariloche said that ash fell like a snowstorm. The Argentine government has sent military troops to help residents affected by the ashfall. A border crossing between Chile and Argentina at Cardenal Samore was closed due to the eruption of Puyehue creating poor visibility on the mountain pass. The last eruption of Puyehue volcano was in 1960 following a 9.5 earthquake.

1960 Eruption
An eruption began at Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcano on 24th May 1960. The eruption was probably precipitated by the great earthquake in chile (magnitude 9.5) which occurred on 22nd May 1960. The eruption consisted of an explosive subplinian phase and the formation of a mushroom-like column 8 km high.

Further reading
Singer, Brad S., et al. "Eruptive history, geochronology, and magmatic evolution of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, Chile." Geological Society of America Bulletin 120.5-6 (2008): 599-618.

Gerlach, D, C., et al. "Recent volcanism in the Puyehue—Cordon Caulle region, Southern Andes, Chile (40· 5° S): petrogenesis of evolved lavas." Journal of Petrology 29.2 (1988): 333-382.

Puyehue-Cordón Caulle Volcano Eruptions

2011-12, 1960, 1934, 1929, 1921-22, 1905?, 1893?