Papandayan Volcano | John Seach


West Java, Indonesia

7.32 S, 107.73 E
summit elevation 2665 m

Papandayan volcano is located 70km SE of Bandung. The volcano is one Indonesia's tourist attractions. Numerous small vents are located within the crater, known as Kawah Mas, Kawah Baru, Kawah Nangklak, Kawah Manuk and many others with solfataras emitting smoke and hot fumes from its inner sides.

2011 Unrest
Papandayan volcano was placed on level 3 alert (out of maximum 4) after an increase in unrest. Seismic activity has increased at the volcano with a doubling of volcanic earthquakes in the first 2 weeks of August compared to previous months. Deformation measurements have detected an 18 mm inflation of the volcano on 10th August compared to 4th July 2011. Temperature in one of the four craters increased from 106.4 to 107.5 deg C between 7-12 August. A two km exclusion zone was placed around the crater.

2008 Unrest
In April 2008 Papandayan volcano was raised to level 2 alert (out of maximum 4) after an increase in seismic activity. There has been an increase in solfatara temperatures in two craters. Between 7-16 April 2008 there was an increase in solfatara temperature in 2 solfatara. Kawah Mas (245-262 deg C), and Kawah Balagadama (91-116 deg C). The pH reduced and mineral concentration increased at two water filled craters (Kawah Baru and Kawah  Balagadama).

2002-03 Eruption
Ash eruptions began at the volcano on 11th November 2002. Explosions occurred on 4,8, and 12 December. Small lahars occurred at Cibeureum Gede and Ciparugpug rivers on 13th and14th December. A new crater was formed at the volcano. The eruptions finished in January 2003.

1993 Mud Explosion
A mud explosion occurred in Kawah Baru on 17th July 1993.

1942 Eruption
An eruption created a new crater.

1935 Man-made eruption
On the 15th July 1935 a fire was accidently started at Papandayan volcano, probably by tourists. Burning sulpurous mud was ejected to a height of 12 m from mudwell number 9. Water from a nearby stream was diverted to extinguish the fire. This created violent explosions which ejected sulphurous mud to a height of 30 m. The explosions stopped after several hours when the fire finished.

1923-26 Eruptions
On 11th March 1923 there were 7 eruptions inner Kawah Baru preceded by a felt earthquake at Cisurupan. On 25th January 1924, temperature of Kawah Mas increased from 364 deg C to 500 deg C. An eruption of mud and stones occurred in Kawah Mas and kawah baru, which destroyed forrest. Eruption material nearly reached Cisurupan. On 21st February 1925, mud eruption occurred at Kawah Nangklak. In 1926 a small eruption of mud and sulphur occurred at Kawah Mas.

1772 Eruptions and Avalanche
In 1772 large eruptions occurred from central crater, and a debris avalanche destroyed 40 villages and killed 2951 people. The avalanche covered an area 10 km long and 6 km wide.

Further reading
Byrdina, Svetlana, et al. "Structure of the acid hydrothermal system of Papandayan volcano, Indonesia, investigated by geophysical methods." Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 358 (2018): 77-86.

Mazot, Agnès, et al. "Chemical evolution of thermal waters and changes in the hydrothermal system of Papandayan volcano (West Java, Indonesia) after the November 2002 eruption." Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 178.2 (2008): 276-286.

Hadisantono, Rudy Dalimin. "Devastating landslides related to the 2002 Papandayan eruption." Indonesian Journal on Geoscience 1.2 (2006): 83-88.

Papandayan Volcano Eruptions

2003-03, 1993, 1942, 1923-26, 1772.