Llaima Volcano | John Seach


Araucanía Region, Chile

38.69 S, 71.72 W
summit elevation 3125 m

Llaima volcano is located 90 km S of Callaqui in Araucanía Region of southern Chile. It is located in Conguillio National Park and about 80 km from the city of Temuco.

Llaima is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile. Historical records show that eruptions are usually brief. Eruptions are controlled by fracture systems striking N 140°E and N 15°E. Fumarolic activity occurs on the main cone.

2009 Eruptions
Llaima volcano in Chile erupted on Friday 3rd April after several months of low seismic activity. On 2nd April at 16:00 hrs (local time) there was an increase in amplitude and frequency of long period earthquakes reaching 45 to 60 per hour. This increase in seismicity remained constant until 18:00 hrs on 3rd April, and then evolved to a continuous seismic tremor of low frequency. The slight increase in seismic activity recorded on 2-3 April was associated with weak emissions of vapour. From 20:30 hrs on 3rd April, eyewitnesses reported a glow in the main crater. At 21:00 hrs, the tremor increased, while at 22:45 hrs weak strombolian explosions occurred in the main crater. Until 06:00 hrs on 4th April, moderate strombolian eruptions occurred every 1-3 seconds, from two cones in the crater. Incandescent material was ejected 700 m above the crater. Muddy water has been reported in rivers draining the volcano. Melting of snow and ice from the eruption creates a lahar hazard.

2008 Eruptions
Llaima volcano erupted on 1st January 2008 with lava fountains, ash emission and lava flows. On 10th July 2008 Strombolian eruptions occurred at Llaima, reaching a height of 500 m above the crater. An exclusion zone was placed around the volcano, and residents were evacuated. Three explosions occurred on 21st August with ash to 11,000 ft altitude.

2007 Eruptions
Ash emissions were observed at Llaima volcano on 8th August 2007 to an altitude of 17,000 ft.

2003 Eruptions
At the beginning of January 2003, an increase in ground temperature at Llaima volcano melted snow in the north and south craters. Exposed rock was visible at the summit and Pichillaima. Three ash explosions occurred on 10th April 2003, and ash fell on the N-slope of Captrén. On 11th April a helicopter overflight showed pyroclastic material on glaciers on the NE, E, SE, and SW flanks of Llaima, extending to a distance of 4 km. Impact craters were visible in the ice.

1998 Eruptions
Small ash explosions occurred at Llaima volcano in April 1998.

1997 Eruptions
Small phreatic explosions at Llaima volcano were detected by seismographs in 1997.

1995 Eruptions
Llaima volcano emitted small amounts of ash beginning 13th October 1995. On the night of 20-21 October 1995, an explosion occurred from the main crater which deposited ash in a 12 km long strip towards the SW.

1994 Eruptions
A Strombolian-to-subplinian eruption began at Llaima volcano on 17th May 1994. Ash was emitted to a height of 8 km above sea level. The plume extended for 300 km ESE. Ash fell in the towns of Zapala and Cutral-Co, in Neuquén Province, Argentina. Subglacial lava flows melted snow and produced lahars. On 17th May a lahar reached the town of Vilcún (43 km W of Llaima), destroying five bridges across the Rio Calbuco, and stranding 59 people.

1992 Eruptions
Three summit explosions occurred at Llaima volcano between 23rd August and 2nd September 1992.

1990 Eruption
A small explosion occurred on 25th February 1990. The eruption produced sediment flow in streams on the east flank of the volcano.

1984 Eruptions
An eruption occurred from the central crater at Llaima volcano on 20th April 1984. Eruptions were visible from Temuco, 70 km W of the volcano. People were evacuated from the area surrounding the volcano.

1979 Eruption
Eruptions began at Llaima volcano on 15th October 1979. Ash was emitted 1 km above the crater. On 24th November two explosions send ash 2 km above the summit.

Further reading
Ruth, Dawn CS, et al. "From passive degassing to violent strombolian eruption: the case of the 2008 eruption of Llaima volcano, Chile." Journal of Petrology 57.9 (2016): 1833-1864.

Curilem, Millaray, et al. "Pattern recognition applied to seismic signals of the Llaima volcano (Chile): An analysis of the events' features." Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 282 (2014): 134-147.

Dzierma, Y. and Wehrmann, H., 2010. Eruption time series statistically examined: Probabilities of future eruptions at Villarrica and Llaima Volcanoes, Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 193(1-2), pp.82-92.

Llaima Volcano Eruptions

2007-09, 2003, 1998, 1997, 1995, 1994, 1992, 1990, 1984, 1979, 1971-72, 1964, 1955-57, 1949, 1946, 1945, 1944, 1942, 1941, 1938, 1937, 1932-33, 1932, 1930, 1929, 1927, 1922, 1917, 1914, 1912, 1907-08, 1903, 1895-96, 1893-94, 1892, 1889, 1887, 1875-76, 1874?, 1872, 1869, 1866, 1864, 1862, 1852-53, 1822, 1759, 1751-52, 1640