Kanlaon Volcano | John Seach


Negros Island, Negros Occidental Province,
Western Visayas, Philippines

10.41 N, 123.13 E
summit elevation 2435 m

The volcano is located 36 km southeast of Bacolod City, and west of Canlaon, Negros Island, Philippines. Kanlaon volcano is one of the most active in the Philippines. It is part of Negros Volcanic Belt. The volcano is located in Kanlaon National Park.

The summit of Kanlaon volcano contains two craters: Lugad crater in the north and the active crater in the south. The southern crater is 250 m wide and 150-200 m deep. The base of Kanlaon covers an area of 30 km x 14 km. The SW sector of the volcano near the settlement of La Castellana contains numerous cinder cones.

Eruption types are phreatic, phreatomagmatic and strombolian.

2015 Eruptions
Ash emissions occurred at Kanlaon volcano in December 2015. A 4 km radius permanent exclusion zone exists around the volcano.

2009 Earthquakes
There has been a large increase in volcanic earthquakes at Kanlaon volcano, Philippines. Between 23rd August and 1st September there were 257 earthquakes measured. This seismic activity is higher than the background levels, which usually varies from 0 to 4 events in 24 hour period. Two earthquakes were felt by residents surrounding the volcano. At 5:26 PM on August 23, 2009 one earthquake was felt at Intensity II in Barangay Ara-al, La Carlota City. A second earthquake at 10:27 PM on August 30, 2009 was felt at Intensity III in La Castellana and Intensity IV in La Carlotta City and Bago City. Epicenters of the earthquakes clustered at the north-west slope of the volcano. These earthquakes may indicate movements of an active local fault which may be caused by magma movement beneath the volcano. Surface observations did not indicate significant change in the steam emission from the crater. The status of Kanlaon Volcano is maintained at Alert Level 0.

2008 Earthquakes
There was a significant increase in earthquakes at Kanlaon volcano between 7-10 February 2008. The public was reminded not to enter the 4-km Permanent Danger Zone.

2006 Eruptions
Eruptions began on 3rd June 2006, and 23 ash eruptions occurred until 25th July. The eruptions were phreatic, and emitted ash and steam 2 km above the crater. No significant seismic activity occurred before or after the ash emissions, indicating the explosions were near surface hydrothermal events.

2005 Eruptions
A brief ash emission began at Kanlaon volcano on 21st January 2005. The emissions reached 500 m above the crater. The eruption was phreatic. On 20th March ashfall was reported in the town of Guintubdan 5 km west of the volcano. During 24th March to 4th April, occasional ash emissions reached 1 km above the volcano. Ashfall was reported in the towns of La Castellana (16 km SW of the crater), Upper Sag-ang, Yubo (5-6 km SW), and Guintubdan (5-6 km WNW). Ash eruptions stopped after 25th May 2005.

2003 Eruptions
On 17th March 2003, a gray volcanic plume was observed at Kanlaon volcano. Small eruptions of ash and steam reaching 100 m above the active crater were observed in the first week of June. On 8th June, ashfall occurred at Canlaon City. After 23rd July only weak steam emission was noted, and seismic activity returned to low levels.

2002 Eruption
An increase in seismicity during January 2002 was followed by a small ash emission on 28th November.

1996 Eruption and Fatalities
A phreatic explosion at Kanlaon volcano killed three people on 10th August 1996. Two climbing groups were at the summit at the moment of the explosion. Eighteen people were hospitalized due to injuries caused mainly by falling ejecta.

1993 Eruptions
A small phreatic explosions occurred at Kanlaon volcano on 25th August and 3rd September 1993.

1992 Eruption
A minor earthquake, ash emission and ashfall occurred at Kanlaon volcano on 10th June 1992.

1989 Eruption
Ash emissions occurred at Kanlaon volcano between October and December 1989. on 3rd November an eruption reached a height of 1200 m above the crater. Ground inflation occurred a few hours before ash emissions.

1988 Eruption
Ash emissions occurred in June 1988. Traces of ash fell in the village of Mananawin on the SE slope at 980 m elevation. On 27th June ash emissions reached a height of 500 m above the crater, and ash fell on SW flank.

1987 Eruptions
Eruptions of Kanlaon volcano in April 1987 were preceded by an increase in Sulphate concentration at Mambucal Aquapool, Mudpool, and Sulfur Spring, 9.75 km NNW of Kanlaon's summit.

1986 Eruptions
As emissions occurred at Kanlaon volcano in June 1986. On 21st June ash reached a height of 4000 m above the summit and was accompanied by a felt earthquake over 8 km from the summit. Booming and hissing noises accompanied the ash ejection.

Further reading
Sevilla, W.I., Jumawan, L.A., Clarito, C.J., Quintia, M.A., Dominguiano, A.A. and Solidum Jr, R.U., 2020. Improved 1D velocity model and deep long-period earthquakes in Kanlaon Volcano, Philippines: Implications for its magmatic system. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research393, p.106793.

Maximo, R.P.R., Bernard, A., Maussen, K., Joiris, E. and Rebadulla, R.R.R., 2019. Geochemical studies of thermal waters from Kanlaon Volcano, Negros Island, Philippines. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research374, pp.39-51.

Neri, M., Le Cozannet, G., Thierry, P., Bignami, C. and Ruch, J., 2013. A method for multi-hazard mapping in poorly known volcanic areas: an example from Kanlaon (Philippines). Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS).

Kanlaon Volcano Eruptions

2015, 2006, 2005, 2003, 2002, 1996, 1993, 1992, 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1980, 1978, 1970, 1969, 1932-33, 1927, 1905-06, 1904, 1902, 1894, 1893, 1884, 1883, 1866.