Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Volcano | John Seach



20.57 S, 175.38 W
summit elevation 149 m

The islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai are located 64 km NNW of Nuku'alofa. The islands are 2 km apart and represent the subareal parts of a submerged caldera.

Hunga Tonga island has a summit elevation of 149 m and Hunga Ha'apai 128 m. A historically active vent is located 3.2 km SE of Hunga Ha'apai and 3 km south of Hunga Tonga.

2014-15 Eruption
Eruptions of Hunga Ha'apai undersea volcano began on 19 December 2014. Activity was reported by fisherman. A white plume was visuble from Kanokupolu coastline since 24 December.

2009 Eruption
An undersea eruption occurred west of the islands of Hunga Tonga and Hunga Ha'apai in Tonga. The eruption was visible from Nuku'alofa, the capital of Tonga. Steam and ash was emitted more than 1 km high. Residents said the steam and ash column first appeared on Monday morning, after a series of sharp earthquakes were felt in the capital, Nuku'alofa. Large amounts of pumice erupted by the volcano may reach beaches in Fiji in a short period of time.

1988 Eruption
An eruption was reported by fisherman on 1st June 1988 with emission of dense smoke. The eruption was continued in shallow water about 1 km SSE of Hunga Ha'apai. Lava erupted from three sources in a SW-NE trend extending 100-200 m.

Further reading
Garvin, James B., et al. "Monitoring and Modeling the Rapid Evolution of Earth's Newest Volcanic Island: Hunga Tonga Hunga Ha'apai (Tonga) Using High Spatial Resolution Satellite Observations." Geophysical research letters 45.8 (2018): 3445-3452.

Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R., et al. "Underwater acoustic records from the March 2009 eruption of Hunga Ha'apai-Hunga Tonga volcano in the Kingdom of Tonga." Journal of volcanology and geothermal research 249 (2013): 12-24.

Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Volcano Eruptions

2014-15, 2009, 1988, 1937, 1912