Huaynaputina Volcano | John Seach



16.60 S, 70.85 W
summit elevation 4850 m

Huaynaputina Volcano is located in southern Peru, 26 km south of Ubinas volcano. The name Huainaputina in the native
indian language (quechua) means the "young boiling one". Prior to the 1600 eruption, no volcano was identified in the area which was described as a "low ridge in the center of a Sierra".

1600 Eruption
The 16 day eruption of Huaynaputina volcano in 1600 was the largest historical eruption in South America, and one of the largest in the world in the past 1000 years. The summit was destroyed in 1600 in an explosion similar to Krakatau in 1883. The eruption ejected a volume of 11 cubic km of tephra, and reached a VEI 6. No caldera was produced in the eruptions.

Precursory earthquakes
Earthquakes began on 15th February 1600 and increased in strength and intensity until 19th February when some buildings in the town of Arequipa fell down. Up to 200 earthquakes were felt in 24 hours.

Paroxysmal Eruption
The eruption at Huaynaputina Volcano on 19th February 1600 was accompanied by large earthquakes at 11:00 am and 1:00 pm. The eruption began with tremendous explosions, the sky grew dark and white ash fell over the countryside. Volcanic lightning was observed in the eruption plume. The noise was described as
similar to artillery fire and, combined with the darkness and rain of white ash, terrified the inhabitants. Ashfall continued until 22nd February when the sun shone through briefly. Ash emission ceased on 23-24 February but resumed on 25th February when darkness lasted for 40 hours. Intermittent ash falls continued from Huaynaputina until 6th March 1600, but the sun remained hazy until 2nd April, when the air cleared. Three of the four vents at Huaynaputina volcano formed at an elevation of 4200 m, which makes them some of the highest known Plinian vents.

Inhabitants at Quinististacas village, 11 kilometers south of Huaynaputina were buried under rocks and ash. Inhabitants of Omate, 16 km from the volcano, were buried under pyroclastic flows. There were also no survivors from the following villages - Chiqueomate, Lloque, Tacsate, Solona and Checa.

A hot lahar from Huaynaputina flowed 120 km to the sea.

Further reading
Verosub, Kenneth L., and Jake Lippman. "Global impacts of the 1600 eruption of Peru's Huaynaputina volcano." Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 89.15 (2008): 141-142.

Lavallée, Yan, et al. "Explosive volcanism (VEI 6) without caldera formation: insight from Huaynaputina volcano, southern Peru." Bulletin of Volcanology 68.4 (2006): 333-348.

Thouret, Jean-Claude, Jasmine Davila, and Jean-Philippe Eissen. "Largest explosive eruption in historical times in the Andes at Huaynaputina volcano, AD 1600, southern Peru." Geology 27.5 (1999): 435-438.

De Silva, S.L. and Zielinski, G.A., 1998. Global influence of the AD 1600 eruption of Huaynaputina, Peru. Nature393(6684), pp.455-458.

Huaynaputina Volcano Eruptions

1600, 7750 BC ± 200 years.