Gamalama Volcano | John Seach


Ternate Island, Indonesia

0.80 N, 127.325 E
summit elevation 1715 m

Gamalama volcano comprises the island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, Indonesia. It is one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. Gamalama volcano is located on the subdiction zone of the Pacific and South Asia tectonic plates.

Gamalama volcano has a history of explosive eruptions followed by lava flows.

There are nine craters at Gamalama volcano:
Arfat Crater, Madiena, K1, K2, K3, K4, Laguna Lake, Tolire Jaha and Tolire Kecil.

2015 Eruption
Gamalama volcano erupted at 9:58 am on 16th July 2015. The eruption was phreatic and produced an ash cloud. On 18th July 2015, ash emissions reached an altitude of 7000 ft and drifted 65 nautical miles west.

2014 Eruption
An eruption of Gamalama volcano began on 19th December 2014. Ash emissions reached an altitude of 8000 ft and extended 25 nautical miles north. Eleven hikers were on the volcano when the eruption began, three were injured. Ternate airport was temporarily closed.

2011 Eruption
Gamalama volcano in Indonesia erupted at 11 pm local time on 4th December 2011. The eruption deposited ash over the Ternate. On 4th December 47 shallow volcanic earthquakes were recorded at the volcano compared to 1 shallow earthquake on 3rd December. The eruption caused 4 fatalities.

2007 Eruptions
An increase in seismicity occurred at Gamalama volcano beginning 20th August 2007. On 23rd August, white and gray plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km.

2003 Eruptions
A pyroclastic flow occurred down Togorar valley on the NE flank of Gamalama volcano on 31st July 2003. Ash explosions continued until October 2003.

1994 Eruptions
Ash eruptions occurred at at Gamalama volcano between January- March 1994 from the main crater. On 5th August, an eruption occurred 3000 m.

1993 Eruptions
An earthquake swarm at Gamalama volcano was followed by an eruption on 21st May. Pyroclastic flows traveled west from the crater. On 12th May, eruptions emitted ash to a height of 3000 m, and ejected incandescent bombs.

1991 Eruptions
Two explosions occurred on 15th June, producing white emissions.

1990 Eruption
Eruptions of Gamalama Volcano began on 25th April, with emission of ash 5 km above the volcano. The main eruption lasted 40 minutes. A nuée ardente, traveled 4.5 km from the crater, producing a 5 m deep deposit.

1988 Eruptions
An eruption of Gamalama Volcano on 12th February 1988 deposited ash over Ternate Island, and caused the evacuation of 3000 people.

1983 Eruptions
An eruption began at Gamalama Volcano on 9th August 1983. An incandescent eruption column rose 1.5 km above the volcano, and ash fell west of the volcano affecting an airport. Over 5000 people evacuated from near the volcano to the town of Ternate.

1980 Eruptions
Eruptions began at Gamalama Volcano on 4th September 1980 with ejection of incandescent tephra. On the 5th September eruptions caused forest fires and ash fell over the island. At Ternate City, 7-8 km E of the crater, ash fall reached a depth of 10 cm. About 40,000 people evacuated to Tidore Island. Ash emissions reached a height of 1800 m, and bombs fell 1 km from the crater. A new crater formed ENE of the summit. Eruptions continued until the end of September 1980.

Further reading
Mei, Estuning Tyas Wulan, et al. "Physical Assessment of Barangka Tugurara Towards Volcanic Hazards of Gamalama Volcano." lst International Cohference on Geography and Education (ICGE 2016). Atlantis Press, 2016.

Syiko, S.F. and Yudono, A., 2013. Evacuation Route Planning in Mount Gamalama, Ternate Island-Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences17, pp.344-353.

Gamalama Volcano Eruptions

2015, 2014, 2011, 2007, 2003, 1996, 1994, 1993, 1991?, 1990, 1988, 1983, 1980, 1962-63, 1938, 1933, 1932, 1923, 1918, 1911, 1907, 1900?, 1898, 1897, 1896?, 1895, 1884, 1884?, 1871, 1868-69, 1868, 1864-65, 1864, 1864?, 1863?, 1862, 1860?, ?1858-59, 1849-50, 1847, 1847, 1846, 1845?, 1844?, 1843, 1842, 1841?, 1840, 1839, 1838, 1835, 1833, 1831, 1821?, 1814, 1812, 1811, 1775, 1773-74, 1773, 1771-72, 1770, 1763, 1739, 1737, 1687, 1686, 1676, 1659, 1653, 1648, 1643?, 1635, 1608, 1605, 1561, 1538.