Dukono Volcano | John Seach


Halmahera, Indonesia

1.70 N, 127.87 E
summit elevation 1185 m
Complex Volcano

Dukono is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Eruptions at Dukono consist of regular explosive eruptions, and occasional lava flows. There are seven craters at the volcano: Tanah Lapang, Dilekene A, Dikekene B, Malupang Magiwe, Telori, Crater E, and Heneowara.

Historically, Dukono produces small frequent eruptions about every 30 minutes, and ejects bombs and lapilli no more than 700 m from the vent. This type of long lasting open vent volcanism is less likely to be harmful for residents who stay more than 1-km from the volcano.

2021 Eruptions
Activity continues at Dukono volcano during 2021.

2018 Eruptions
Eruptions continued at Dukono volcano in 2018.

2012 Earthquake and Eruptions
A magnitude 4.8 earthquake hit 4 km NNW of Dukono volcano on 3rd February 2012. The focus depth was 208 km. During January 2012 eruptions of Dukono sent ash plumes to 9000 ft altitude. Ash emissions were reported between January and June 2012.

2008 Eruptions
Dukono was upgraded to level 3 alert on 30th May 2008 after an increase in eruption earthquakes from 32/day to 280/day. On 25th May, ash emissions reached 800 m above the crater, and booming noises were heard coming from the summit. Ash emissions reached 1000 m above the summit on 29th May. The volcano was on alert level 2 between January 2002 and May 2008.

1991 Eruptions
An eruption began on 8-9th June 1991. Explosions occurred every 5 minutes and ashfall occurred on the coast 15 km ENE of the summit at the towns of Galela, Mamoya, and Tobelo. The eruptions were accompanied by noise, crater glow, and small lahars.

1978 Eruptions
Larger than normal eruptions were observed at Dukono volcano between 20-25th July 1978. Explosions occurred every 10 seconds and bombs were ejected 250 m from the crater rim. On 21st July, ash drifted north beyond the town of Galela, 15 km from the volcano.

1946 Eruptions
During the ash-eruptions of July-August 1946 several villages were covered by an ash-layer of 5-8 cm. The wind carried the ashes also to the airport on Morotal. The total ash production of 1946 was 1.5 million cubic metres.

1933 Eruption
On the night of 12-13 August 1933 eruptions began at Dukono volcano. A glow was noticed from Mamoeja on the bay of Galela. Explosions every 2-3 minutes were accompanied by heavy rumbling. Earthquakes were felt 15 km from the volcano.

1550 Eruption
In 1550 an eruption of Dukono (called Tolo after the city with that name) caused great damage in its environs.

Further reading
Bani, Philipson, et al. "Dukono, the predominant source of volcanic degassing in Indonesia, sustained by a depleted Indian-MORB." Bulletin of Volcanology 80.1 (2018): 5.

Zaennudin, A., 2010. The characteristic of eruption of Indonesian active volcanoes in the last four decades. Jurnal Lingkungan dan Bencana Geologi1(2), pp.113-129.

Dukono Volcano Eruptions

1933-2021, 1901, 1868?, 1719, 1550.