Calbuco Volcano | John Seach



41.326 S, 72.614 W
summit elevation 2003 m

Calbuco volcano is located in southern Chile, 11 km south of Lake Languished, and 30 km NE of Puerto Mont. The volcano contains a 400-500 m wide summit crater. Avalanche deposits have reached Lake Llanquihue.

Calbuco and Puyehue volcanoes lie on the same fault and are known to erupt
within a few years of each other or together.

calbuco volcano
Calbuco Volcano - John Seach

Geology of Calbuco Volcano
The volcano has a truncated cone shape and consists mainly of blocky and aa lava flows interbedded with pyroclastic rocks.
Calbuco-1 outcrops in deep gullies and is the remnant of an ancient volcano that predates the last glaciation.
Calbuco-2 forms the main cone of Calbuco volcano, and consists of interbedded lavas and breccias. This includes a violent eruption that triggered a 3 cubic km rock-avalanche which traveled NNW.
Calbuco-3 occurred after the avalanche and consists of lava flows and a small dome, located on the northern flank of the volcano.
Calbuco-4 consists of a historic dome and associated lava flows, which developed during the eruptions of 1893-94, 1917, 1929 and 1961.

2015 Eruption
An explosive eruption occurred at Calbuco volcano on 22 April 2015. About 1500 residents were evacuated from the nearby town of Ensenada. The eruption plume reached an altitude of 40,000 ft. Photos circulated on the internet of a mysterious human-like figure appearing in the 2015 eruption plume.

1961 Eruption
On 25th January 1961 Calbuco volcano began emitting columns of white clouds of water vapor. Series of earth tremors shook the windows of nearby houses. The eruption produced three lahars: (1) down the north flank to Lake Llanquihue, (2) down the south flank to Lake Chapo, (3) down the northeast flank to the Rio Petrohue. Lahars were was caused by eruption of lava and pyroclastic material melting of ice and snow. Explosive activity was noted from the beginning of the eruption. On 10th March a large explosion was heard 8 km away, and produced a mushroom shaped cloud which rose 3,000 meters above the cone. Bombs 3 meters in diameter were ejected 500 meters high.

1893-94 Eruption
One of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile occurred at Calbuco volcano in 1893-1894.

Further reading
Romero, J.E., Morgavi, D., Arzilli, F., Daga, R., Caselli, A., Reckziegel, F., Viramonte, J., Díaz-Alvarado, J., Polacci, M., Burton, M. and Perugini, D., 2016. Eruption dynamics of the 22–23 April 2015 Calbuco Volcano (Southern Chile): Analyses of tephra fall deposits. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research317, pp.15-29.

López-Escobar, L., Parada, M.A., Hickey-Vargas, R., Frey, F.A., Kempton, P.D. and Moreno, H., 1995. Calbuco Volcano and minor eruptive centers distributed along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, Chile (41–42 S): contrasting origin of andesitic and basaltic magma in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology119(4), pp.345-361.

Calbuco Volcano Eruptions

2015, 1972, 1961, 1929, 1917, 1911-12, 1909, 1907, 1906, 1895, 1893-94.