Bromo Volcano | John Seach


Tengger Caldera, East Java, Indonesia

7.94 S, 112.95 E,
summit elevation 2329 m

Mt Bromo volcano is a scenic tourist destination in East Java. The volcano is noted for its spectacular sunrises, and majestic views across to Semeru volcano to the south.

Bromo is the only active crater in the Tengger caldera which contains seven eruptive centres. In 1838 the crater was filled with a lake.

Mt Bromo volcano photos by John Seach

Tengger Caldera. Mt Bromo crater is smoking at left, Batok cone in centre.
Semeru volcano is in the distance (right).

bromo volcano
Bromo crater 2012

bromo volcano
Tengger caldera

Batok cone

bromo volcano
Bromo crater

mt bromo volcano
Bromo crater rim

mt bromo crater
Mt Bromo crater 2012

The Tengger caldera was formed in five stages.

1) The original Tengger Volcano was built up by eruption of pyroclastic deposits and lava flows to a height of 4500 m. This original volcano was called Ngadisari, and formed 820,000 years ago.

2) Paroxysmal explosive eruptions caused Ngadisari Volcano to collapse and formed Ngadisari Caldera.

3) Cemoro Lawang wall was formed by large amounts of ignimbrite flows.

4) Paroxysmal explosive eruptions formed the present structure of the outer caldera.

5) Recent volcanic activity occurred at six eruption vents inside the caldera.

2020 Activity
On 28 December 2020 ash emissions reached 500 m above the crater.

2015 Unrest
Bromo volcano was raised to level 3 alert (Siaga) on 4th December 2015 after an increase in volcanic earthquakes. An exclusion zone of 2.5 km radius was placed around the crater.

2012 Unrest
The alert level at Bromo volcano, Indonesia was raised to level 2 (Waspada) on 3rd October 2012, after an increase in amplitude of volcanic tremor. A 1 km exclusion zone was placed around the crater. Visual observations reported thin white emissions rising 50 m above the crater.

2010-11 Eruption
Seismic activity increased at Bromo volcano in Indonesia in November 2010. Between 1-7 November two shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected. This increased to 540 between 8-14 November, and 354 between 15-21 November. Continuous tremor was recorded at the volcano on 22-23 November. Bromo volcano was raised to highest level 4 alert on 23rd November 2010.
An eruption of ash occurred at Bromo volcano, Indonesia on Friday 26th November. Ash reached 500 m above the crater.

On 28th January 2011 ash emissions from Bromo volcano caused the cancellation of some international flights to Bali. Thousands of passengers were affected by disrupted flight schedules after ash emissions from Bromo volcano reached Bali on 27th January. A volcanic ash advisory reported ash emissions extending 200 nautical miles east of the volcano, and rising to a height of 18,000 ft.

2004 Eruption
Two people were killed during an eruption of Bromo on 8th June 2004. The phreatic eruption lasted 20 minutes. Many buildings in the nearby towns of Malang and Probolinggo were covered by a light coating of ash 2 hours after the eruption.

2000 Eruptions
On 29th November 2000 an explosion occurred at Bromo volcano. An ash plume drifted 40 km from the crater.

1995 Eruption
On 3rd March 1995 an eruption from Bromo volcano produced ashfall 20 km away.

1980 Eruptions
Eruptions began at Bromo volcano in early June 1980. Incandescent tephra was ejected, and glowing bombs reached 400 m from the crater. On 21st June ash emissions reached a height of 900 m. During the peak eruptions on 20-21 June, 480 explosions were recorded during a 24 hour period.

1948 Eruptions
Eruptions of Bromo volcano from 15 February to 27 March 1948 destroyed 500 hectares of land on the NE of the volcano. This was the strongest eruption at the volcano since 1804.

1929 Eruption
On 7th August 1929 eruptions began at Bromo volcano. Ash fell over Malang until 25th August.

Further reading
Aiuppa, A., Bani, P., Moussallam, Y., Di Napoli, R., Allard, P., Gunawan, H., Hendrasto, M. and Tamburello, G., 2015. First determination of magma-derived gas emissions from Bromo volcano, eastern Java (Indonesia). Journal of volcanology and geothermal research304, pp.206-213.

Gottschämmer, E. and Surono, I., 2000. Locating tremor and shock sources recorded at Bromo volcano. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research101(1-2), pp.199-209.

Bromo Volcano Eruptions

2020, 2019, 2015, 2010-11, 2004, 2000, 1995, 1984, 1983, 1980, 1972, 1956, 1955, 1950, 1948, 1040, 1939, 1935, 1930, 1929, 1928, 1928, 1922, 1921, 1915-16, 1910, 1909, 1907-08, 1907, 1906-07, 1896, 1893, 1890, 1888?, 1886-87, 1886, 1885-86, 1885, 1877, 1867-68, 1866, 1865, 1865, 1860, 1859, 1858, 1858, 1857, 1856, 1844, 1843, 1843, 1835, 1830, 1830, 1829, 1825, 1822-23, 1820, 1815, 1804, 1775?, 1767?