Bárdarbunga Volcano | John Seach



64.63 N, 17.53 W
summit elevation 1850 m

Bárdarbunga volcano is located under NW part of the Vatnajökull icecap. Vatnajökull is the largest glacier in Europe. Veidivötn and Trollagigar are related fissure systems, which extend about 100 km SW. It has been one of the most active volcanoes in Iceland over the past few hundred years.

Bardarbunga volcanic system extends 150 km from Tofajökull central volcano to Trölladyngja. 

Bárdarbunga is a large volcano which rises 900 m above the surrounding terrain to a height of 1850 m. It contains a caldera 700 m deep with an area of 80 sq km. The base of the volcano is 1100 m above sea level. The volcano stretches NE in the dierection of Dynjuhals.

A fissure eruption at Thjorsarhraun produced the largest holocene lava flow on earth with a volume of 21 cu km. The 1477 eruption of Bardarbunga was large with a volcanic explosivity index of 5.

Volcanic activity at Barbarbunga may cause flooding in all directions depending on the eruption location. The glacial outburst flood (jökulhlaup) has a high potential energy and contains a high erosional power.

2014-15 Eruption
A subglacial eruption began at Bárðarbunga volcano at 11:18 on 23rd August 2014.A magnitude 5.3 earthquake hit under volcano on 24th August 2014. The eruption was preceded by an earthquake swarm which began on 16th August 2014. An intrusion, 25 km long, formed beneath Dyngjujökull, at a depth of 5-10 km. The six month eruption ended on 27 March 2015.

2010 Earthquake swarm
An earthquake swarm began at Bardarbunga volcano on 26th September 2010.

Further reading
Gudmundsson, M.T., Jónsdóttir, K., Hooper, A., Holohan, E.P., Halldórsson, S.A., Ófeigsson, B.G., Cesca, S., Vogfjörd, K.S., Sigmundsson, F., Högnadóttir, T. and Einarsson, P., 2016. Gradual caldera collapse at Bárdarbunga volcano, Iceland, regulated by lateral magma outflow. Science353(6296), p.aaf8988.

Sigmundsson, F., Hooper, A., Hreinsdóttir, S., Vogfjörd, K.S., Ófeigsson, B.G., Heimisson, E.R., Dumont, S., Parks, M., Spaans, K., Gudmundsson, G.B. and Drouin, V., 2015. Segmented lateral dyke growth in a rifting event at Bárðarbunga volcanic system, Iceland. Nature517(7533), pp.191-195.

Bárdarbunga Volcano Eruptions

2014-15, 2008, 2006, 2005, 2002, 2000, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1991, 1986, 1910, 1902-03, 1872?, 1862-64, 1807?, 1797, 1769, 1766, 1729, 1726, 1717, 1716, 1712,
1707, 1706, 1477, 1410?, 1159?, 1080?, 940?