Askja Volcano | John Seach



65.03 N, 16.75 W
summit elevation 1516 m

Askja is located in the central highlands of Iceland.
Volcanic activity is associated with two fault systems.

Askja lake (Öskjuvatn) is circular with a maximum depth of 224 m. Strong geothermal activity is present on east and south sides of the lake. The lake is located in a crater formed by 1875 eruption.

2019 Earthquake swarm
An earthquake swarm occurred under Askja volcano in November 2019.

2008 Earthquake Swarm
In March 2008 an earthquake swarm occurred 30 km east of the volcano.

1961 Eruption
On 26th October 1961 lava flows were observed extending 7.5 km from the crater. an eruption plume reached an altitude of 6 km. Four lava fountains were visible, with the largest reaching a height of 500 m.

1926 Eruption
Small volcanic island formed in lake Oskjavatn from 26 km long fissure.

Eruptions in 1921-23
Four small eruptions produced basaltic lava.

1875 Eruption
Strong earthquakes occurred in December 1874. Eruptions began on 3rd January 1875 with a column of fire observed at the Myvatn area. On 28-29th March 1875 a 1875 plinian eruption of Askja had a volcanic explosive index of 5. The main phase of the eruption lasted for about 6 hours. Eruption occurred from the SE corner of the caldera. The eruption formed Viti crater. Farmland was damaged by the eruption.

Further reading
Macdonald, R., Sparks, R.S.J., Sigurdsson, H., Mattey, D.P., McGarvie, D.W. and Smith, R.L., 1987. The 1875 eruption of Askja volcano, Iceland: combined fractional crystallization and selective contamination in the generation of rhyolitic magma. Mineralogical Magazine51(360), pp.183-202.

Carey, R.J., Houghton, B.F. and Thordarson, T., 2010. Tephra dispersal and eruption dynamics of wet and dry phases of the 1875 eruption of Askja Volcano, Iceland. Bulletin of Volcanology72(3), pp.259-278.

Askja Volcano Eruptions

1961, 1938, 1926, 1924, 1923, 1922, 1921, 1919, 1875, 1797?
1300 South of Dyngjufjöll Ytri
1250 BC ± 300 Litladynga and Askja
2050 BC ± 500 Flatadyngja, other areas NE of Dyngjufjöll
9130 BC ± 1000 SE part of Askja caldera