Agua de Pau Volcano | John Seach


Sao Miguel Island, Azores

37.77 N, 25.47 W
summit elevation 947 m

Agua de Pau Volcano is located in the middle of Sao Miguel Island, Azores. Agua de Pau volcano occupies an area of about 150 sq km.

A 2.5 x 3 km caldera formed 15,000 years ago and is filled by Lake Lagoa do Fogo (Fire Lake). The crater walls are 300 m high. The subaerial volume of the volcano is about 80 cubic km. The remains of an older caldera, about 7 x 4 km across, is visible on the western, northern, and eastern sides of the volcano.

Hot springs with temperatures near boiling point, are located on the northwestern flank of Agua de Pau.

1988 Earthquakes
A swarm of small earthquakes and weak harmonic tremor, occurred beneath the NE flank of Agua de Pau Volcano on 23-24 May 1988. Another swarm of small swarm of small earthquakes occurred 24-26 June 1988 on the S flank of Agua de Pau. A third swarm of micro earthquakes occurred 6 July 1988 near the south coast of Sao Miguel.

1563-64 Eruptions
During this eruption the current Lagoa do Fogo was formed as a result of collapse of Agua de Pau caldera.

Further reading
Moore, R.B., 1990. Volcanic geology and eruption frequency, São Miguel, Azores. Bulletin of Volcanology52(8), pp.602-614.

Storey, M., Wolff, J.A., Norry, M.J. and Marriner, G.F., 1989. Origin of hybrid lavas from Agua de Pau volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores. Geological Society, London, Special Publications42(1), pp.161-180.

Marriner, G.F., Norry, M.J. and Gibson, I.L., 1982. The petrology and geochemistry of the Agua de Pau volcano, Sao Miguel, Azores. Arquipélago. Série Ciências da Natureza3, pp.159-173.

Agua de Pau Volcano Eruptions

1564 Lagoa do Fogo caldera
1563 Caldera, NW flank (Cerro Queimado)
700 AD ± 150 WNW flank (Mos)
160 AD ± 150 NW flank (251 m)
1290 BC? Lagoa do Fogo caldera
1850 BC ± 500 East flank (Lagoa do Congro)
2210 BC ± 150 East flank (East Congo maar)
2990 BC? Lagoa do Fogo caldera and north flank
4550 BC ± 100 SW flank (449 m)
6750 BC ± 200 West flank (Pico Joao Fernandes)